• Atmospheric CO2 /Parts per Million /Annual Averages /Data Source: noaa.gov

  • 1980338.91ppm

  • 1981340.11ppm

  • 1982340.86ppm

  • 1983342.53ppm

  • 1984344.07ppm

  • 1985345.54ppm

  • 1986346.97ppm

  • 1987348.68ppm

  • 1988351.16ppm

  • 1989352.78ppm

  • 1990354.05ppm

  • 1991355.39ppm

  • 1992356.1ppm

  • 1993356.83ppm

  • 1994358.33ppm

  • 1995360.18ppm

  • 1996361.93ppm

  • 1997363.04ppm

  • 1998365.7ppm

  • 1999367.8ppm

  • 2000368.97ppm

  • 2001370.57ppm

  • 2002372.59ppm

  • 2003375.14ppm

  • 2004376.96ppm

  • 2005378.97ppm

  • 2006381.13ppm

  • 2007382.9ppm

  • 2008385.01ppm

  • 2009386.5ppm

  • 2010388.76ppm

  • 2011390.63ppm

  • 2012392.65ppm

  • 2013395.39ppm

  • 2014397.34ppm

  • 2015399.65ppm

  • 2016403.09ppm

  • 2017405.22ppm

  • 2018407.62ppm

  • 2019410.07ppm

  • 2020412.44ppm

  • 2021414.72ppm

  • 2022418.56ppm

  • 2023421.08ppm

Michiel Willems

Michiel Willems

News & Views

Howden CEO: address investors’ concerns to make vulnerable countries insurable

At COP28 in Dubai, David Howden, founder and CEO of global insurer Howden, sat down with NZI to discuss the role of the Loss and Damages Fund in addressing climate risk and insurance challenges for the Global South

News & Views

‘Arms race’ for clean energy allocations intensifies as Biden’s IRA pulls ahead

In the race for investors' renewables capital, the EU, China and the U.S. have rolled out ambitious clean energy investment programs. Despite the various initiatives, industry insiders agree Biden's IRA is "a tough offering to match"

News & Views

Exclusive - New York State Comptroller Thomas DiNapoli: ‘we cannot divest our way to net zero’

Thomas DiNapoli has been New York State Comptroller for more than 15 years, as the man in charge of a $258bn investment portfolio opens up to NZI about the pension fund's net zero investment strategy

News & Views

What can net zero-minded investors still achieve in a ‘hot house’ world?

Are there still credible investor pathways to 1.5C? Investors and experts discuss how to translate net zero transition scenarios into investor strategies

News & Views

AP2 CEO Eva Halvarsson: ‘it is strange to talk about impact investing’

Eva Halvarsson, the CEO of $36bn Swedish pension fund AP2, explains how impact investing considerations influence her pension fund's capital allocations

News & Views

Best of Net Zero Investor: 2023 interview highlights

As 2023 is drawing to a close, this end-of-year special takes a look at some of the conversations NZI had this year with net zero investment movers & shakers around the world

News & Views

Deal in Dubai as COP28 leaders agree to ‘transition away’ from fossil fuels

At the COP28 climate summit in Dubai, for the first time ever, more than 190 governments have agreed to 'transition away' from fossil fuels

News & Views

Shipra Gupta: ‘Pensions one of the most powerful tools to make net zero progress’

Shipra Gupta, responsible investment lead at Scottish Widows, argues there is "a critical need for action" regarding the role of pension funds in driving net zero progress

News & Views

MAS-led coalition of investors targets Asian coal plants

An unlikely coalition of wealth funds, investors, banks and industry associations is going after dirty, outdated and high-polluting coal plants with just one simple goal: closure

News & Views

UK investment community embraces FCA’s new sustainability labelling regime

A new labelling regime in Britain for sustainable investment products and stricter marketing rules should increase investor trust and combat greenwashing. Industry insiders scrutinise the new regime

News & Views

Short sellers circling clean energy firms lay bare renewables’ serious headwinds

As hedge funds increasingly place short bets against struggling clean energy providers, the trading frenzy exposes the complex and challenging investment market renewables are currently in

News & Views

UK asset owners review into stewardship misalignment finds ‘substantial divergence’ on shareholder values

Different notions of stewardship, cultural values and fiduciary responsibility have created misalignment between the interests of UK asset owners and managers, a much-anticipated review has found

News & Views

Counting down: the key investments themes that will define COP28

The countdown to COP28 has started. While expectations within the green finance community are fairly low, NZI takes a look at the key themes investors will look out for at the upcoming summit in the UAE

News & Views

After mass-divestment of oil and gas, AP Pension plans to ramp up wind and solar allocations

Danish pension giant AP Pension is coming down hard on fossil fuel firms, removing dozens of oil and gas companies from its investment portfolio. Responsible investment head Anna Maria Fibla Moeller explains the pension's new energy strategy

News & Views

Border to Coast CEO Rachel Elwell: ‘asset owners risk overselling what they can deliver’

Asset owners should manage expectations better, as the rapidly evolving climate finance ecosystem makes it increasingly challenging to set long-term goals that are achievable

News & Views

Pension fund NOW: on an unstoppable mission to colour its entire portfolio green

82% of the investment portfolio of UK workplace pension provider NOW is now considered green. CEO Patrick Luthi explains the multi-billion investor's sustainable investment approach

News & Views

OMERS’ sustainability chief on why the C$127bn fund’s green investment spree will not slow down

Following a flurry of transactions this summer, OMERS' chief sustainability officer Michael Kelly opens up about the pension fund's investment strategy and allocation decisions

News & Views

Asset owners turn greener worldwide but dark clouds are gathering fast

For most asset owners decarbonisation is now a key factor when allocating capital, although concerns about geopolitical uncertainty and inflation are growing: 'it's time to be discerning'

News & Views

AP6’s green chief on investment choices, pressuring managers and mitigating climate risks

AP6's Anna Foller sits down with NZI to discuss the Swedish pension's investment portfolio, sustainable strategy and key issues that keep investors awake at night

News & Views

EU sharpens renewables targets despite challenging investment climate

The EU is pushing through more ambitious renewables targets, as high inflation and mounting costs are making life difficult for clean energy investors

News & Views

New TPT framework hailed as ‘a vital step forward’

Industry insiders across the board are embracing the Transition Plan Taskforce’s new framework, telling Net Zero Investor the standards are 'a vital step forward' in the UK's net zero journey

News & Views

Taking stock of physical risks: investors could be in for a ‘rude awakening’

How can investors assess and manage physical climate risk and resilience across their portfolios? A range of asset owners share their approach

News & Views

PRI in Person: David Atkin warns ‘net zero commitments should be backed by quantifiable action’

On the last day of the PRI in Person conference in Tokyo, PRI chief executive David Atkin sits down with Net Zero Investor to reflect on the week that was

News & Views

PRI in Person: anti-ESG sentiments weigh heavily on investors’ minds

The anti-ESG movement is gaining momentum and investors take notice as the unsustainability wind is giving delegates at PRI in Person a chill

News & Views

PRI in Person: Alecta’s chair and GIC’s loss dominate conference conversations

Recent events at two major asset owners dominate informal conversations at PRI in Person in Tokyo as they raise questions about risk-taking, oversight and responsible investing

News & Views

PRI in Person: investors urged to give net zero allocations a capital injection

On day 1 of PRI's annual conference in Tokyo, speakers called on investors to step up their net zero investment efforts as Japan's PM hinted more regulation may be coming

News & Views

CPPIB’s green investment chief: ‘decarbonising a portfolio at scale is almost impossible’

Net Zero Investor sits down with Richard Manley, CSO and head of sustainable investing at the CA$575bn Canada Pension Plan Investment Board, among the world's ten largest pension funds

News & Views

AP4 CEO Niklas Ekvall: ‘we drive the transition in the most carbon-intensive parts of the economy’

Net Zero Investor sits down with AP4's chief executive Niklas Ekvall to scrutinise the $32 billion Swedish pension fund's sustainable investment choices

News & Views

AP3’s head of sustainability on bringing down real world emissions

Net Zero Investor caught up with Fredric Nyström, head of sustainability & governance at Swedish pension giant AP3

News & Views

CPPIB’s sustainable energies chief: ‘our net zero approach does not involve fossil fuel divestment’

In an exclusive interview with NZI, Bill Rogers of the C$575bn Canada Pension Plan Investment Board opens up about his pension's investment choices and priorities

News & Views

Energy transition assets draw inflows as capital owners embrace impact investing: ‘a valuable tactic’

The energy transition is powering a global influx of investors entering the impact investment space. Net Zero Investor looks into the challenges, obstacles and risks that capital owners face

News & Views

The new gold: investment strategies risk drowning in unreliable data

Third party providers flood investors with data sets that contain unreliable outcomes, risk assessments and scenarios, the PRI warns

News & Views

UPP’s responsible investment MD on the investor role of pensions in the energy transition

In an exclusive interview with NZI, University Pension Plan Ontario's Brian Minns opens up about his fund's sustainable strategies and investment priorities

News & Views

Why Canadian pension giant CDPQ is betting big on carbon capture, green cement and steel

Net Zero Investor sits down with Bertrand Millot, head of sustainable investment at the C$424 billion Québec pension fund CDPQ, to discuss net zero pledges, investment portfolio choices and engagement strategies

News & Views

ACS 2023: Global investors have been bitten by Kenya’s clean energy bug

Danish pension funds allocating hundreds of millions of dollars to Kenyan renewables reflects the green investor mood in the East African nation

News & Views

ACS 2023: Rifts on the African energy transition send mixed signals to investors

At the Africa Climate Summit in Nairobi, several large oil-producing nations are challenging Kenya's ambitious agenda for investments in renewables

News & Views

ACS 2023: carbon credit retreats cast shadow over investor-focused climate summit

Despite bold pledges and a record $450 million UAE deal, investors are walking away from carbon offsetting programs. It leaves a sour taste at the Africa Climate Summit in Nairobi

News & Views

ACS 2023: Private sector investment steals the show at Africa Climate Summit

Private sector investment is increasingly taking centre stage at the Africa Climate Summit, with Kenya's president urging investors to reallocate billions into renewables

News & Views

ACS 2023: Asset owners urged to embrace green investments in earnest by ‘unlocking’ trillions

Speakers at a private investor event ahead of this week's Africa Climate Summit urged asset owners to be less reluctant to embrace green investments and 'unlock' trillions of dollars

News & Views

Opinion: how trustees can help make climate scenario analysis ‘decision-useful’

With recent research critiquing some climate scenario analysis used by pension scheme trustees for their annual climate reports, Mark Hill, The Pensions Regulator’s Climate and Sustainability Lead, explains what trustees can do to drive change

News & Views

Ontario Teachers Pension CEO Jo Taylor: ‘voting against directors sets the tone for change’

Pension fund veteran Jo Taylor explains to Net Zero Investor why and how effective governance is key to achieving long-term value and driving sustainability

News & Views

Piling up: complex, time-consuming climate reporting increasingly a daunting task

Amid globally expanding sustainability standards, with the ISSB taking centre stage, reporting requirements are increasingly draining time and resources

News & Views

Uncle Sam vs John Bull: the irresistible investor appeal of Biden’s IRA

As the UK's green energy space is becoming less attractive for investors, insiders expect some British asset owners to cross the pond and capitalise on IRA-related opportunities

News & Views

Green investors on edge after SEC goes after fund managers

Making hollow sustainability claims to investors is coming back to bite a range of managers as the SEC moves into gear. Insiders warn more regulatory action is to be expected

News & Views

High inflation and rising costs increasingly a ‘disaster’ for UK clean energy investors

High inflation and rising costs, paired with a weak CfD regime, are prompting investors to rethink their UK renewables strategies. In fact, some have already cancelled entire projects altogether

News & Views

Investors digest new reporting standards as ISSB principles rapidly gain momentum

The sustainability reporting landscape is consolidating, with the ISSB's green principles rapidly gaining momentum. What can investors expect?

News & Views

Risking a COP-out: should investors care about the COP28 climate summit?

As the COP28 presidency boldly plans to 'supercharge' the green finance space, what can investors expect from the November summit in the UAE? And what should they engage on?

News & Views

The rise of cat bonds: how insurers shield themselves from climate risks

The global catastrophe bond market has swelled to a record $40 billion. So how do they work, and why are investors embracing these securities en masse?

News & Views

Investment community embraces UK move to duplicate ISSB standards: ‘right direction’

The UK's decision to model its new disclosure standards on the principles of the ISSB has been widely applauded by industry insiders

News & Views

Green investment efforts fading as support for net zero votes evaporates

Net zero efforts among investors are stalling in a number of key markets, most notably the U.S., as support for green motions is declining rapidly

News & Views

Ontario Teachers’ investment chief: long-term capital powers net zero transition

Ziad Hindo, the chief investment officer of the $247bn Ontario Teachers Pension Plan, discusses how long-term investors drive portfolio companies towards their net zero goals

News & Views

Net zero tolerance: are asset owners too soft on profit-driven managers?

Several asset owners and managers agree it is the capital owners, not the money movers, who should set the speed and direction within the net zero investment space

News & Views

Minsky moment: are pension assets at risk due to flawed climate analysis?

Pension funds rely too heavily on sanguine consultant forecasts and underestimate the financial impact of climate change on their portfolios, economists warn

News & Views

Deep Dive: Is a super-cycle in water infrastructure investment coming?

Billions of water investments are urgently needed to hit UN Sustainable Development Goal 6 but asset owners are reluctant to dive into this risky and volatile space

News & Views

Looking East: Asian investors are in the midst of ‘a sustained shift toward a focus on emission’

What climate-related issues are on the minds of large investors across Asia? Hong Kong-based Chune Loong Lum of Ropes & Gray shares what he is hearing on the ground

News & Views

Exclusive: Risks are holding back clean energy investments, warns Swiss Re exec

While the renewable energy investment space is growing, Swiss Re's chief underwriting officer specialty warns such projects present major challenges for asset owners

News & Views

Financing net zero: asset owners’ challenge to scale climate investments

Addressing market failures and nurturing public-private collaboration while mobilising blended finance instruments could significantly scale net zero investment flows

News & Views

With many investors keen to divest from fossil fuels, why is renewables’ momentum stalling?

Around $1.70 is now invested in clean energy for every $1 invested in fossil fuels. Will this hold up and is it enough to get to net zero?

News & Views

Looking East: despite complexity and risks, India’s net zero investment opportunities explode

India faces a mammoth challenge to transition away from fossil fuels, which presents investors in decarbonisation with a range of new opportunities

News & Views

The week that was: PMT, Ethics in asset ownership, ISSB absorbs TCFD, Phoenix Group

Do not miss some of Net Zero Investor's best news pieces, interviews and analyses from last week

News & Views

Long Read: do asset owners have a duty to fill the world’s $114bn water financing gap?

Many investors fear drowning in risks and uncertainty when looking at water as an investment proposition, despite global demand going through the roof on an increasingly dry planet

News & Views

Looking East: will the race to net zero be won or lost in Asia?

PRI chief David Atkin sees a rapid 'broadening' of Asian investors making serious net zero efforts, with rich Malaysian pension funds leading the pack

News & Views

CIO of Dutch pension PMT: ‘simply impossible to only invest in aligned assets’

Hartwig Liersch, since 2017 the chief investment officer of Dutch pension fund PMT, opens up about his scheme's net zero investment strategies

News & Views

Mixed responses across industry as ISSB takes charge of TCFD reporting

Industry insiders respond with a mixture of praise and disbelief as the ISSB has agreed to take over the responsibilities of the TCFD next year

News & Views

Investment guru: asset owners are building net zero ‘muscle and savvy’

Asset owners' climate allocations are growing and engagement efforts deepening but fresh capital for renewables is deployed too slowly, Roger Urwin argues

News & Views

NZAOA chair Günther Thallinger: asset owners do not acknowledge ‘existential threat’

The chair of the Net-Zero Asset Owner Alliance warns that many asset owners may fall victim to adverse climate impacts, with insurers already suffering

News & Views

Nest CIO Elizabeth Fernando: ‘we don’t want to concentrate our money into fewer assets’

Elizabeth Fernando was recently promoted to chief investment officer of UK pension fund Nest. Time for Net Zero Investor to check in with the industry veteran

News & Views

Enviva’s CEO defends an industry under fire: ‘don’t confuse science with opinions’

Investors are divided over whether they should pump capital into biomass energy. Time for Net Zero Investor to sit down with the CEO of one of the largest biomass players in the world

News & Views

Exclusive: Why one size does not fit all for AXA IM

As proxy season is drawing to a close, Net Zero Investor sits down with Clémence Humeau and Virginie Derue to learn more about AXA IM's engagement approach

News & Views

NZI series: SEC’s ‘no-action’ requests

In this 3-part series, Net Zero Investor takes a deep dive into so-called 'no action requests' submitted to the SEC, which disclose a hidden side of engagement

News & Views

Railpen exec: ‘The game is up in terms of good faith engagement’

With this year's proxy season largely over, UK pension funds start to reflect on the lack of net zero progress in the oil & gas sector with BP and Shell firmly on their radar

News & Views

Sustainability chief: energy efficiency investments are the ‘first fuel’ for net zero transition

Investors should push their corporates to spot and seize energy efficiency opportunities, argues Stephanie Kelly of Redwheel

News & Views

Why climate litigation increasingly poses a risk to a company’s value

Climate litigation is rapidly taking root in Europe and elsewhere, with many of these cases no longer just brought against governments but more and more against corporates and their shareholders

News & Views

Revealed: the influence of proxy advisers and ESG rating agencies on investor voting behaviour

Proxy advisers and ESG rating agencies have a significant impact on asset owners' engagement efforts and, ultimately, their voting decisions at AGMs

News & Views

Exclusive: Drastic misalignment in master trust shareholder climate votes at AGMs

Data scrutinised by Net Zero Investor shows that fund manager votes on climate-linked AGM proposals clash with master trust member preferences in a third of all cases

News & Views

Exclusive: ‘Asset owners face an intimidating to-do list’, says WTW’s green investment chief

Adam Gillett, head of sustainable investment at insurance behemoth Willis Towers Watson, sits down with Net Zero Investor to go over the issues that keep him awake at night

News & Views

Investor eyes shift to European watchdogs in battle against greenwashing

Eve Ellis, a financial services partner in Ropes & Gray, discusses with Net Zero Investor why investors should pay more attention to a range of recent greenwashing reports

News & Views

LGIM dials up net zero engagement as manager’s divestment list grows

Michael Marks, LGIM's head of investment stewardship, explains why the investment manager is increasingly engaging aggressively with its portfolio companies

News & Views

Do billions in oil and gas investments undermine Macquarie’s net zero commitments?

Investors are urged to question why the Australian banking giant straddles the net zero fence with large investments in both renewables and oil and gas production

News & Views

The Pensions Regulator: ‘Funds need to move away from short-term focus on costs’

The Pensions Regulator's climate lead, Mark Hill, reveals to NZI that the public body may start issuing penalty notices if pension funds breach regulations

News & Views

Best of PLSA 2023: BTPS - LGIM - JOHCM - Railpen - USS

An overview of Net Zero Investor's coverage of PLSA's 2023 investment conference, which took place in Edinburgh last week

News & Views

Exclusive: ‘Asset owners must take managers’ stories with a pinch of salt’

At PLSA in Edinburgh, earlier this week, NZI sat down with Paul Lee, head of stewardship and sustainable investment at Redington, which serves some of the UK's largest pension funds

News & Views

PLSA exclusive: LGIM bets big on ‘engagement with consequences’

On the last day of PLSA in Edinburgh, Net Zero Investor sits down with one of the world's largest investment managers, serving half a dozen UK pension funds

News & Views

PLSA exclusive: ‘Investors are rediscovering developing markets’, says JOHCM’s Andrew Parry

At the PLSA conference in Edinburgh, keynote speaker Andrew Parry, head of investments at J O Hambro, checks in with Net Zero Investor

News & Views

PLSA exclusive: Why BT pension’s investment guardian takes ‘a pragmatic, evolving approach’

As Britain’s pension funds gather at PLSA in Edinburgh, Net Zero Investor sits down with Wyn Francis who represents the UK’s largest company scheme

News & Views

PLSA exclusive: USS heavyweight on decarbonisation, renewables and biodiversity investments

In an exclusive interview with NZI, Innes McKeand of the UK's Universities Superannuation Scheme discusses his pension fund's role in the net zero investment space

News & Views

PLSA exclusive: ‘Careful with companies where there is value at risk’, says Railpen’s stewardship head

In an exclusive interview with NZI, Railpen's Caroline Escott talks stewardship, engagement and pension funds' role in driving net zero investments

News & Views

Do investors need a new category for green funds under FCA’s latest SDR proposals?

Many ‘traditional’ green funds would not qualify as sustainable vehicles under new FCA proposals, warns Miranda Beacham, head of ESG equities and multi-asset at Aegon AM

News & Views

Most pension funds are lost in the woods when it comes to deforestation

Most pension providers that are part of a major climate coalition do not have credible deforestation plans nor have they made any commitments

News & Views

Dropping the ECT: hampering net zero investments in renewables?

As several EU member states plan or consider withdrawing from the ECT, some industry insiders believe this will undermine attracting foreign investments in renewables

News & Views

Asset owners face more risks as volatility will surge in US, warns investment veteran

Net Zero Investor checked in with Newday investor Doug Heske to get his thoughts on the much-talked about ESG bill in the US

News & Views

Scottish Widows stewardship chief sees growing misalignment between pension funds and asset managers

Asset managers’ actions are increasingly in conflict with pension funds' best interests, Maria Nazarova-Doyle tells Net Zero Investor

News & Views

Proxy season: Insurers and their largest shareholders flatly ignore net zero motions

Questions about insurers' plans to address net zero challenges dominate AGMs, but large shareholders vote down all climate-related resolutions

News & Views

Hard numbers: Adair Turner on investors’ key net zero challenges

ETC chair Lord Adair Turner provides an in-depth insight in what he considers the key challenges for investors and businesses while transitioning to net zero

News & Views

Green believers vs ESG naysayers: is the net zero investment space in rude health?

Stats show the net zero investment market is in a relatively good shape. However, fresh political winds with strong anti-ESG sentiments increasingly present a major challenge

News & Views

Asset owners increasingly verify net zero claims as portfolio transparency demands swell

More and more asset owners harness a strict and adaptive reporting system as it helps them to identify, verify and implement net zero principles in their investment portfolios

News & Views

Pensions and systemic risk: the evolution of asset owners’ net zero approach

Tegs Harding argues UK pensions schemes desperately need a broader net zero lens to assess their investment portfolios

News & Views

Shifting the natural cost curve: the role of asset owners in biodiversity

Asset owners increasingly assess biodiversity footprints to complement measuring climate impact as part of their net zero strategy, AXA IM's Chris Iggo tells NZI

News & Views

Exclusive: Carbon Neutral Royalty’s CEO on offsets as part of any net zero strategy

Net Zero Investor discusses with CNR chief Luke Leslie why asset owners should pressure companies to include carbon offsets in their net zero approach

News & Views

The ‘privileged’ role of asset owners in speeding up decarbonisation investments

Asset owners should focus on real world decarbonisation via engagement and drop their obsession with hollow numbers and targets, a senior net zero insider argues