• Atmospheric CO2 /Parts per Million /Annual Averages /Data Source: noaa.gov

  • 1980338.91ppm

  • 1981340.11ppm

  • 1982340.86ppm

  • 1983342.53ppm

  • 1984344.07ppm

  • 1985345.54ppm

  • 1986346.97ppm

  • 1987348.68ppm

  • 1988351.16ppm

  • 1989352.78ppm

  • 1990354.05ppm

  • 1991355.39ppm

  • 1992356.1ppm

  • 1993356.83ppm

  • 1994358.33ppm

  • 1995360.18ppm

  • 1996361.93ppm

  • 1997363.04ppm

  • 1998365.7ppm

  • 1999367.8ppm

  • 2000368.97ppm

  • 2001370.57ppm

  • 2002372.59ppm

  • 2003375.14ppm

  • 2004376.96ppm

  • 2005378.97ppm

  • 2006381.13ppm

  • 2007382.9ppm

  • 2008385.01ppm

  • 2009386.5ppm

  • 2010388.76ppm

  • 2011390.63ppm

  • 2012392.65ppm

  • 2013395.39ppm

  • 2014397.34ppm

  • 2015399.65ppm

  • 2016403.09ppm

  • 2017405.22ppm

  • 2018407.62ppm

  • 2019410.07ppm

  • 2020412.44ppm

  • 2021414.72ppm

  • 2022418.56ppm

  • 2023421.08ppm

News & Views

Best of Net Zero Investor: 2023 interview highlights

As 2023 is drawing to a close, this end-of-year special takes a look at some of the conversations NZI had this year with net zero investment movers & shakers around the world

Content Tags: Pensions  Hedge Funds  Regulation  Renewables  US  Europe  UK 

From carbon pricing to asset allocations, and betting big on solar to abandoning wind energy: here are some of NZI's conversations with leading asset owners and other major investors that helped to shape the climate finance debate in 2023.

Nest CIO Elizabeth Fernando: ‘we don’t want to concentrate our money into fewer assets’

Elizabeth Fernando was promoted this year to chief investment officer of UK pension fund Nest. Net Zero Investor caught up with the industry veteran earlier this year. READ HERE.

USS heavyweight on decarbonisation, renewables and biodiversity investments

In an exclusive interview with NZI earlier this year, Innes McKeand of the UK's Universities Superannuation Scheme discussed his pension fund's role in the net zero investment space. READ HERE.

Why BT pension’s investment guardian takes ‘a pragmatic, evolving approach’

As Britain’s pension funds gathered at PLSA in Edinburgh over the summer, Net Zero Investor sat down with Wyn Francis who represents the UK’s largest company scheme. READ HERE.


"We need predictable, transparent, and stable regulation of infrastructure assets, and additional policies to reduce energy demand."


‘Careful with companies where there is value at risk’, says Railpen’s stewardship head

In an exclusive interview with NZI earlier this year, Railpen's Caroline Escott opened up about stewardship, engagement and pension funds' role in driving net zero investments. READ HERE.

Ageas’ investment chief: ‘Brown companies have no future’

Wim Vermeir, the CIO at insurance company Ageas, explained to Net Zero Investor how to go the distance in the complex transition to net zero. READ HERE.

AP7’s Johan Floren: Placing biodiversity in the ‘active consciousness’ of investors

AP7’s ESG chief spoke to Net Zero Investor recently on sustainable finance waking up to biodiversity and its role in the climate transition. READ HERE.


"It is often asserted that a responsible owner should refrain from investing in sectors with sustainability challenges. Our position is rather the opposite."

AP4's chief executive Niklas Ekvall

Surrey Pension Fund: 'There’s a balance of power shift on net zero'

Net Zero Investor checked in with Lloyd Whitworth, head of Investment and Stewardship and Neil Mason, assistant director for the Surrey Pension Fund to discuss their new net zero target. READ HERE.

New York State Comptroller Thomas DiNapoli: ‘we cannot divest our way to net zero’

Thomas DiNapoli has been New York State Comptroller for more than 15 years, as the man in charge of a $258bn investment portfolio opened up to NZI about the pension fund's net zero investment strategy. READ HERE.

AP4 CEO Niklas Ekvall: ‘we drive the transition in the most carbon-intensive parts of the economy’

Net Zero Investor sat down with AP4's chief executive Niklas Ekvall to scrutinise the $32 billion Swedish pension fund's sustainable investment choices. READ HERE.


"Voting against directors for a lack of progress, when needed, sets the tone for change."

Ontario Teachers Pension CEO Jo Taylor

Tony Juniper: 'The human economy is a wholly owned subsidiary of nature'

Net Zero Investor sat down with Tony Juniper, chair of Natural England to discuss the long-term case for nature positive investments. READ HERE.

PPF’s Claire Curtin: ‘Engagement is our main climate risk management tool’

PPF's head of ESG & sustainability explained recently to NZI the fund's approach to engaging with portfolio companies, external fund managers and policymakers. READ HERE.

Ontario Teachers Pension CEO Jo Taylor: ‘voting against directors sets the tone for change’

Pension fund veteran Jo Taylor explained to Net Zero Investor why and how effective governance is key to achieving long-term value and driving sustainability. READ HERE.


"We are investigating other potential sectors such as carbon capture, green cement and steel to eventually be in a position to invest in them, but only once they are sufficiently mature to meet our risk-return criteria."


UPP’s responsible investment MD on the investor role of pensions in the energy transition

In an exclusive interview with NZI, University Pension Plan Ontario's Brian Minns opens up about his fund's sustainable strategies and investment priorities. READ HERE.

CPPIB’s green investment chief: ‘decarbonising a portfolio at scale is almost impossible’

Net Zero Investor sits down with Richard Manley, CSO and head of sustainable investing at the CA$575bn Canada Pension Plan Investment Board, among the world's ten largest pension funds. READ HERE.

Why Canadian pension giant CDPQ is betting big on carbon capture, green cement and steel

Net Zero Investor sits down with Bertrand Millot, head of sustainable investment at the C$424 billion Québec pension fund CDPQ, to discuss net zero pledges, investment portfolio choices and engagement strategies. READ HERE.

Please find dozens of more interviews and exclusive NZI sitdowns here.

Date for the diary: next month
Content Tags: Pensions  Hedge Funds  Regulation  Renewables  US  Europe  UK 

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