• Atmospheric CO2 /Parts per Million /Annual Averages /Data Source: noaa.gov

  • 1980338.91ppm

  • 1981340.11ppm

  • 1982340.86ppm

  • 1983342.53ppm

  • 1984344.07ppm

  • 1985345.54ppm

  • 1986346.97ppm

  • 1987348.68ppm

  • 1988351.16ppm

  • 1989352.78ppm

  • 1990354.05ppm

  • 1991355.39ppm

  • 1992356.1ppm

  • 1993356.83ppm

  • 1994358.33ppm

  • 1995360.18ppm

  • 1996361.93ppm

  • 1997363.04ppm

  • 1998365.7ppm

  • 1999367.8ppm

  • 2000368.97ppm

  • 2001370.57ppm

  • 2002372.59ppm

  • 2003375.14ppm

  • 2004376.96ppm

  • 2005378.97ppm

  • 2006381.13ppm

  • 2007382.9ppm

  • 2008385.01ppm

  • 2009386.5ppm

  • 2010388.76ppm

  • 2011390.63ppm

  • 2012392.65ppm

  • 2013395.39ppm

  • 2014397.34ppm

  • 2015399.65ppm

  • 2016403.09ppm

  • 2017405.22ppm

  • 2018407.62ppm

  • 2019410.07ppm

  • 2020412.44ppm

  • 2021414.72ppm

  • 2022418.56ppm

  • 2023421.08ppm

Thomas Helm

News & Views

BCI’s Jon Perry: ‘renewables are moving past recent challenges’

The Canadian fund's director of infrastructure and renewable resources talks about recent green investments and the outlook for the wider energy transition sector

News & Views

Why investors should think more seriously about oil prices

Oil companies and their investors are betting big on a delayed transition yet their misalignment with net-zero is a recipe for financial disaster, NGOs and thinktank sources claim

icon roundtable

AP3’s Fredric Nyström: “Green mineral shortage is one of the most pressing issues of our times”

Net Zero Investor sat down with AP3’s head of sustainability and governance to talk about how asset owners can invest more in responsible mining

News & Views

US takes lead on carbon capture

Investors are taking advantage of the US’s enabling policy environment to fund the emerging technology

icon roundtable

Biodiversity credit markets: what are next the next steps?

Environment Bank’s Emma Toovey talks about how voluntary markets can avoid the mistakes of the carbon market and why asset owners would buy credits

News & Views

Is this the golden age of Climate AI?

Venture-capital-backed start-ups are employing AI to solve grid issues, ESG data and analytics, and a host of other climate-related bottlenecks

News & Views

Smart Pension’s Fiona Smith: “We’re looking to make a positive biodiversity impact”

Pension funds don’t need to sacrifice returns to achieve a positive impact argues Smart Pension's Fiona Smith

News & Views

Should climate investors worry about the European elections?

A rightward drift in the upcoming European elections is unlikely to have a major impact on EU climate policy

News & Views

CPP’s Bill Rogers: ‘we take a practical approach to decarbonisation’

The head of sustainable energies for Canada's largest pension plan explains how the fund aims to decarbonise its heavy emitters

News & Views

Setting a nature price: how does this work in practice?

If the targets set out in the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework are to be realised, investors could soon face some far reaching policy changes

News & Views

How to navigate the changing landscape of biodiversity investing

Investor interest in biodiversity is gaining traction, what are the main strategies to gain exposure to this rapidly evolving asset class?

News & Views

EU doubles down on circular economy

Meeting biodiversity and climate goals “won’t be possible” without a transition to a circular economy, the European Commission said, but the bloc still has some way to make investment accessible

News & Views

Grid capacity: why system-wide thinking is essential for the energy transition

Major asset owners are calling on governments to tackle one of the biggest roadblocks to net zero: grid capacity

News & Views

Can Trump ruin Biden’s Inflation Reduction Act?

The possible re-election of Donald Trump is making investors think very carefully about their Inflation-Reduction-Act-related investments

News & Views

Nuclear renaissance: net-zero solution or dangerous gamble?

An increasing number of countries and investors warm to the idea of more nuclear power but uncertainty around its role in meeting net-zero targets has reinforced old divisions

News & Views

How to scale up nature-based solutions

Institutional interest in natural capital is growing but it still accounts for only a fraction of funds committed to restoring nature. How can funding be scaled up?

News & Views

COP 28: Overcoming risk is key to unlocking climate-nature investment

Transforming the way risk is both perceived and managed will boost institutional capital flows into nature positive projects, investors say

News & Views

Fossil fuel phaseout discussions heat up at COP28

While COP28 president and oil baron Jaber stirs controversy, investors hope that some kind of phaseout deal is still within reach

News & Views

“You pollute, you pay the price”: COP leaders push for carbon pricing

The IMF, World Bank, EU and World Trade Organisation call for the global adoption of carbon pricing

News & Views

IRA deep dive: opportunities created ‘up and down’ the net-zero value chain

The US's Inflation Reduction Act and other green policies are bolstering clean energy investment, despite strong economic headwinds and the looming political risk of a second Trump administration

News & Views

Why floating offshore wind could be the next frontier in renewables

Pension funds are allocating capital to this emerging technology, but is it mature enough to provide an appropriate risk-return profile?

News & Views

Investors eye carbon capture as part of transition finance

Institutional investors see green bonds as the safest investment route into this early stage technology

News & Views

How to manage deforestation risk

Deforestation is not only terrible for climate and biodiversity, but also poses financial risk to investors

News & Views

PPF’s Claire Curtin: ‘Engagement is our main climate risk management tool’

PPF's head of ESG & sustainability explains the fund's approach to engaging with portfolio companies, external fund managers and policymakers

News & Views

Timberland is increasingly on the radar of natural capital investors

Forestry is currently dominating the natural capital conversation for institutional investors looking at this emerging asset class

News & Views

Most institutional investors still lack deforestation policy

The amount of capital flowing into deforestation dwarves positive investments, despite the key role forests play in tackling climate change

News & Views

Green hydrogen: still too niche for institutional investors?

While some asset owners are taking a pioneering first-mover approach, others struggle to find appropriate investment opportunities

News & Views

No transition without transmission: why investors are joining the electrification dots

Investors are looking at car charge points, cables, battery storage, interconnectors, and other opportunities in the broader energy transition value chain

News & Views

COP28: Changing global temperature target would dilute net zero strategies

Stewardship practices, especially escalation and divestment policies, will weaken if COP leaders opt for a 2C or 1.8C global temperature target, pension funds say

News & Views

Shiventa Sivanesan, West Midlands Pension Fund: ‘We are looking at new and emerging technologies’

The LGPS fund's assistant director of investment management and stewardship talks about recent green capital allocations and why they were made

News & Views

UK offshore wind still has room to grow, despite failed auction

Inflation and supply chain issues won’t buck the long-term trend of continued growth and investment in UK offshore wind, investors say

News & Views

How would financial markets work in a steady state economy?

Part V of NZI’s Economy of the Future series explores the implications of a steady state economy for financial markets

News & Views

Net zero policies and transition risks: ‘asset owners should prepare for twenty volatile years’

Whether the green transition happens by design or by disaster, reading the policy runes is still a massive headache for asset owners


GFANZ launches transition finance consultation

The global net zero alliance aims to support the scaling up of transition finance by providing common definitions

News & Views

How to invest in de-growth

Some investors are looking to reduce their resource footprint by including circular, regenerative and sharing economy themes in their portfolios

News & Views

How to navigate the profit problem in sustainability

Reaching out to pension holders and understanding membership demographics may help ease the tension between long-term and short-term fiduciary duties

News & Views

Central banks make landmark effort to mainstream nature risk

The Network for Greening the Financial System’s new framework for nature and biodiversity risks aims to boost central bank and supervisory action globally

News & Views

Is green growth failing?

Green growth hasn’t reduced carbon emissions and resource consumption to sustainable levels. Is improper implementation or faulty logic to blame?

News & Views

Shipra Gupta: ‘we believe in the first-mover advantage of nature investing’

Shipra Gupta, investments stewardship lead at Scottish Widows, argues that investing in nature sooner rather than later makes sound financial sense

News & Views

Are green growth and degrowth really so different?

As the concept of post-growth enters political mainstream, Net Zero Investor explores the dividing lines between green growth and degrowth

News & Views

Climate scientist Susanne Ditlevsen: ‘I am shocked by how bad climate economists are’

Climate scientist Susanne Ditlevsen explains to Net Zero Investor why asset owners need to avoid mainstream climate economic forecasts

News & Views

Is blended finance reaching a hard capital limit?

Blended finance is impossible to scale without increasing the availability of public and philanthropic sources of concessionary capital

News & Views

How to invest in blended finance

Net Zero Investor outlines the main challenges and opportunities for institutional investors

News & Views

Nature finance: are biodiversity credits moving too fast?

Efforts to scale up nature finance fuel an interest in biodiversity credits, but experts worry that the momentum is unable to digest the complexity

News & Views

Mining for Net Zero: Is a green commodities crisis around the corner?

Part II of NZI’s Mining for Net Zero series examines the implications of projected shortages in critical minerals needed for green technologies

News & Views

Mining for Net Zero: why investors need to engage more with miners

Part one of NZI’s Mining for Net Zero series looks at why investor engagement in this critical sector is essential for the overall transition

News & Views

Feeling the legal heat: climate litigation doubles in five years

More and more investors and their investee companies face climate-related lawsuits, with American entities leading the pack. What is going on?

News & Views

Pricing the unthinkable: Investors struggle to plan for AMOC collapse

The timeline and consequences of passing the collapse of the AMOC, a key climate tipping point, are still too uncertain to enable reliable analysis

News & Views

Why policymakers struggle to mitigate net zero transition risks

Part V of NZI’s Putting a Price on Pollution series explores the dangers of a disorderly transition

News & Views

Better policymaking will stop short-termism from holding back net zero

Part IV of NZI’s Putting a Price on Pollution Series looks at short-term pressures that are complicating the green transition

News & Views

Due diligence laws divide financial firms

Part III of NZI’s Putting a Price on Pollution series looks at the complications around extending environment-focused due diligence laws to financial firms

News & Views

Global firms call for transition pathways and carbon tax

The second instalment of NZI's Putting a Price on Pollution Series looks at the lobbying activities that surround key anti-pollution policies

News & Views

Seven reasons why policymakers aren’t accelerating the green transition

Net Zero Investor kicks off its Putting a Price on Pollution Series by looking at why policymakers are reluctant to implement stronger anti-pollution policies

News & Views

Dominique Dijkhuis: ‘we cannot afford to wait to take action’

The head of investments at ABP says that lack of climate data will not hold back the ambitions of Europe’s largest private pension fund and calls for the introduction of carbon taxes and mandatory emissions-trading schemes.

News & Views

Asset owners align on stewardship approach

The Universities Superannuation Scheme, the Association of British Insurers and Reclaim Finance explain current climate strategy trends among asset owners.

News & Views

How to finance nature-based solutions to climate change

A doubling of finance flows into nature-based solutions is needed by 2025 to tackle the climate and biodiversity crises, so what can potential investors learn from three successful case studies?

News & Views

Hopes run high for COP15 ‘Paris moment’ for biodiversity

Sustainability-focused firms want COP15 to deliver an ambitious global framework with clear and measurable biodiversity targets and mandatory disclosures.